When time and funding permit, each flower (each plant species) will have its own page, and its own PDF, and eventually its own PPT so that professors and students have plenty of material on Guatemala (and Honduras, etc) to study.

Heliconia adflexa, Coban, Guatemala, Hotel Monja Blanca, FLAAR, by Nicholas Hellmuth

Florifundia
This space is for flowers
we have recently found and photographed.

Reports by FLAAR Mesoamerica
on Flora & Fauna of Parque Nacional Yaxha Nakum Naranjo
Peten, Guatemala, Central America


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“Manzanote” a special cactus from the dry forest

“Manzanote” a special cactus from the dry forest

Cacti are perennial plants, very attractive for their strange shapes and spines. Its stems are green, fleshy, simple or branched, with cylindrical, globose or flattened shapes. They are, generally, terrestrial plants adapted to extreme climates where they can survive long periods without water. They can be herbs, shrubby or arborescent, fleshy or even hard and woody stems; also, epiphytes cacti can be found (mostly in trees from the tropical zones) (Véliz, 2008).

The main characteristic of cacti is the presence of thorns (spines) on their stems instead of leaves, in fact the word cactus derives from the Greek "káctos", which means "prickly thistle". But, as nature is unpredictable, there’s the exception of the rule: two genera which species that have leaves. These are: Pereskia and Pereskiopis, according to Véliz (2008). So, if you are a cactus enthusiast, you will surely be impressed by learning about the species Pereskia lychnidiflora.

At first glance, Pereskia lychnidiflora looks like a tree full of thorns, since it can reach up to 9 meters in height and its stems are even woody-like, so you would never imagine that it is a cactus. This species is commonly found in the dry forest of Guatemala, which includes the departments of El Progreso, Zacapa and Chiquimula. It is known by the locals by the name of "Manzanote" (big apple in Spanish) due to the fruits it produces, very similar to apples (Yoshimoto, 2017). There is a special interest in the Pereskia genus because of its medicinal properties such as antisyphilitic, emollient and for the treatment of inflammatory and skin diseases. Recent research has shown that the P. lychnidiflora species contains anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties due to the presence of tannin alkaloids and sterols (Guerra, et al. 2018)

The FLAAR Mesoamerica team found this amazing cactus in Guastatoya, El Progreso on Highway CA9.







Pereskia-lyechnidiflora-manzanote

This part looks like a cactus plant: spines everywhere.

Pereskia-lyechnidiflora-manzanote

Here it looks more like a tree.

Pereskia-lyechnidiflora-manzanote

Here again it looks like a cactus: spines everywhere.

Pereskia-lyechnidiflora-manzanote

Here the Pereskia lyechnidiflora looks more like a tree. Victor Mendoza, plant identifier manager at FLAAR Mesoamerica told me it is a cactus.

All photos were taken with iPhone 12 Max Plus by Nicholas Hellmuth

All are Circa km. 91, Highway CA9. There are hundreds of these cactus trees from circa km. 90 to km 97 (and beyond). But not many cacti along the streams that flow into Rio Motagua; the stream side vegetation is not usually bosque seco. So avoid the rivers and go to the hills. Most are on the south side of the road but a few are on the north side. Once you recognize the color, size, and shape of the leaves they are easy to find (in the months when they have leaves).

The characteristics of Pereskia lychnidiflora make it a very interesting and exotic plant, but at the same time, very little studied and appreciated. It is a sample of the great diversity of species that we can find in the dry forest, a unique place in Guatemala; but very few people talk about it because the tree species that live there lose their foliage for 5 to 6 months, water is scarce due to lack of rain in the dry season and therefore, it is quite hot. For the other side, the seasonally dry forest can be a real spectacle in the rainy season, first because trees recover their foliage and transform into the forest we expect to see. Plus, there are many reptiles and insects that appear after months of estivation (when animals slow their activity for the dry season) which complement the landscape. You might be interested on reading about the most eccentric lizard from Guatemala, learn more here:

Guatemalan relative of Gila Monster of southwest USA, Heloderma horridum charlesbogerti, Rio Motagua and Huehuetenango

www.maya-ethnozoology.org/images-of-iguana-species-lizards-guatemala-belize-mexico-honduras-el-salvador/heloderma-horridum-charlesbogerti-rio-motaguariver-guatemala-photographs.php

“El Niño Dormido” a unique species in the world

https://flaar-mesoamerica.org/2020/01/24/el-nino-dormido-a-unique-species-in-the-world/

Next opportunity (once the Coronavirus lockdown is over), if you pass driving parallel to the Motagua Valley, now you know what to look for, so hopefully you will observe this interesting species: Pereskia lychnidiflora, one of the only cacti that have leaves.

PDF, Articles, Books on Pereskia lychnidiflora

  • GUERRA, Rocío, GÓMEZ, Luis Javier, CASTILLO, Ulises G., TOLOZA, Gonzalo, SÁNCHES, Juan Pablo, AVALOS, Noel, MEJÍA, José, NÚÑEZ, Marvin and Miguel A. MORENO
  • 2018
  • Efecto analgésico, caracterización fitoquímica y análisis toxicológico del extracto etanólico de hojas de Pereskia lychnidiflora. Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica vol.35 no.4.
  • YOSHIMOTO, Jiichiro and Daniel ARIANO
  • 2017
  • El bosque estacionalmente seco de Guatemala: Flora, Fauna y Cultura.

 

Suggested webpages with photos and information on Pereskia lychnidiflora

www.crbio.cr:8080/neoportal-web/species/Pereskia%20lychnidiflora
General information

https://datosabiertos.unam.mx/IBUNAM:MEXU:1178886
General information

https://ecohis.jmarcano.com/biodiversidad/pereskia/
Information.

https://enciclovida.mx/especies/143853-pereskia-lychnidiflora
Complete information and photos

www.zamorano.edu/2016/08/01/importancia-uso-los-cactus/
General information

 

First posted February, 2021
bibliography and text by Vivian Hurtado, FLAAR Mesoamerica.

 

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