When time and funding permit, each flower (each plant species) will have its own page, and its own PDF, and eventually its own PPT so that professors and students have plenty of material on Guatemala (and Honduras, etc) to study.

Heliconia adflexa, Coban, Guatemala, Hotel Monja Blanca, FLAAR, by Nicholas Hellmuth

Florifundia
This space is for flowers
we have recently found and photographed.

Reports by FLAAR Mesoamerica
on Flora & Fauna of Parque Nacional Yaxha Nakum Naranjo
Peten, Guatemala, Central America


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List of Books, PDFs and Suggested Reading on Pterocarpus officinalis

Pterocarpus officinalis corresponds to the Fabaceae family and occurs in Central America, South America and north through the Caribbean. It is an evergreen tree growing to about 15-30 meters, known as “Sangre de drago”. The wood has miscellaneous uses and It is excellent for charcoal and firewood, and is the primary use that occurs in the Atlantic zone of Guatemala, where it represents one of the largest sources of entry. Has good qualities for paper. The bark has medicinal applications as a balm or ointment for skin infections and is taken for diarrhea. The tree is also used for the reproduction of the Morpho butterflies (CATIE/OFI, 2014).

Pterocarpus-officinalis-cahue-yellow-flowers-Fuerte-San-Carlos-Rio-Dulce-Livingston

Pterocarpus officinalis, cahue yellow flowers in Fuerte San Carlos, Rio Dulce, Livingston.

List of Books, PDFs and
Suggested Reading on Pterocarpus officinalis

  • AGUIRRE de Riojas, Regina and Elfriede de PÖLL
  • 2017
  • Trees in the Life of the Maya World. BRIT PRESS, Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 206 pages.

    Regina de Riojas has dedicated much of her life to trees of the Maya and trees of Guatemala. Elfriede de Pöll has likewise dedicated her life, to biology of Guatemala, at Universidad del Valle de Guatemala.
  • ARELLANO-Rodríguez, J. Alberto, FLORES Guido, José Salvador, TUN Garrido, Juan and M. M. CRUZ Bojórquez.
  • 2003
  • Nomenclatura, forma de vida, uso, manejo y distribución de las especies vegetales de la Península de Yucatán. Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Etnoflora Yucatanense 20: 1–815. 815 pages.
  • ATRAN, Scott, LOIS, Mimena and Edilberto UCAN Ek’
  • 2004
  • Plants of the Peten Itza’ Maya. Museum of Anthropology, Memoirs, Number 38, University of Michigan. 248 pages.

    Very helpful and nice collaboration with local Itza’ Maya people. But would help in the future to have a single index that has all Latin, Spanish, and English plant names so that you can find plants more easily.

    Not available as a download.
  • BAER, Phillip and Mary BAER
  • 2018
  • Diccionario maya lacandón. Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”, Núm. 51. Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., Mexico.

    Download available on the Internet.
  • BALICK, Michael J., NEE, Michael H. and Daniel E. ATHA
  • 2000
  • Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize: With Common Names and Uses. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Vol. 85. 246 pages.
  • BALICK, Michael J. and Rosita ARVIGO
  • 2015
  • Messages from the Gods: A Guide to the Useful Plants of Belize. The New York Botanical Garden, Oxford University Press.
  • BARRERA, Garcia, Andrea Viviana
  • 2014
  • Importancia cultural de especies arbóreas nativas en la Selva Lacandona, Chiapas. MS Thesis. Montecillo, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico.
  • BUENO, Joaquín. ALVAREZ, Fernando and Silvia SANTIAGO (editors)
  • 2005
  • Biodiversidad del Estado de Tabasco. CONABIO, UNAM, Mexico. 370 pages.
  • CONABIO
  • 2011
  • Fichas de especies prioritarias, Mono Aullador Pardo (Alouatta palliate) Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas y Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, México D.F.
  • DAVILA-Romero, Héctor Alfredo
  • 2011
  • Estimación de la cantidad de carbono almacenado en los sistemas agroforestales de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), en los departamentos de Suchitepéquez y Retalhuleu del Sur-Occidente de Guatemala. Thesis, USAC. 90 pages.
  • ESPINOSA-Moreno, Judith, CENTURION-Hidalgo, Dora and Alberto MAYO-Mosqueda
  • 2009
  • Estudio de la actividad antimicrobiana de recursos fitogenéticos subexplotados en el estado de Tabasco. Informe técnico final. PFICA-UJAT.
  • ESTRADA Loreto, Feliciana
  • 2011
  • Indicadores ecológicos de la zona riparia del río San Pedro, Tabasco, México. Thesis, ECOSUR.
  • FOSTER, Robin, LIN, Brenda, METZ, Margaret and Tyana WATCHER
  • n.d.
  • América Tropical, PLANTAS con HORMIGAS. Field museum #13
  • GÓMEZ-Domínguez, Héctor, PÉREZ-Ferrera, Miguel Ángel, ESPINOZA-Jiménez, Josefa Anahí and Mirna Ivett MARQUEZ-Reynoso
  • 2015
  • Listado Florístico del Parque Nacional Palenque, Chiapas, México. Botanical Sciences 93 (3): 559-578, 2015.
  • GUIZAR-Baldizón, Rafael José
  • 2013
  • Trabajo de Graduación realizado en el refugio de vida silvestre Bocas del Polochic, con énfasis en el diagnóstico y lineamientos generales de manejo de una plantación de Icaco, Chrysobalanus icaco L, en El Estor, Izabal, Guatemala, C.A. USAC, Guatemala.
  • INAB
  • 2001
  • Mapa de Ecosistemas Vegetales de Guatemala. Instituto Nacional de Bosques – INAB
  • LESUR, Luis
  • 2011
  • Árboles de México. Editorial Trillas. 368 pages.
  • LEVY-Tacher, Samuel I., AGUIRRE-Rivera J. Rogelio, GARCÍA-Pérez José D. and María Magdalena MARTÍNEZ-Romero
  • 2006
  • Aspectos florísticos de Lacanhá Chansayab, Selva Lacandona, Chiapas. Acta Botanica Mexicana 77: 69-98 (2006).
  • LUNDELL, Cyrus L.
  • 1937
  • The Vegetation of Peten. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publ. 478. Washington. 244 pages.
  • LUNDELL, Cyrus L.
  • 1938
  • Plants Probably Utilized by the Old Empire Maya of Peten and Adjacent Lowlands. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 24, Part I:37-59.
  • MEERMAN, J. C., BOOMSMA, T. and B. ARÉVALO
  • 2015
  • Spanish Creek Wildlife Sanctuary Management Plan 2016-2021. Belize Key Biodiversity Areas Secretariat and the Rancho Dolores Environmental and Development Group Ltd.
  • MEAVE, Jorge A., ROMERO-Romero, Marco A., VALLE-Doménech, Andrés, RINCÓN-Gutiérrez, Armando, MARTÍNEZ, Esteban and Clara H. RAMOS
  • 2008
  • Plant diversity assessment in the Yaxchilán Natural Monument, Chiapas, México Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México, Núm. 83, sin mes, 2008, pp. 53-76. Sociedad Botánica de México, A.C. México.
  • MEERMAN, Jan
  • 2010
  • Last Frontiers Rapid Ecological Assessment. No publisher noticeable.
  • MORSE, McKensie Leigh
  • 2009
  • Pollen from Laguna Verde, Blue Creek, Belize: Implications for Paleoecology, Paleobotany, Agriculture and human settlement. PhD dissertation, Texas A&M University.
  • OCEGUEDA, Susana, MORENO, E. and Patricia KOLEFF
  • 2005
  • Plantas Utilizadas en la Medicina Tradicional y su Identificación Científica. CONABIO.
  • OCHOA-Gaona, Susana, RUÍZ González, Hugo, ÁLVAREZ Montejo, Demetrio, CHAN Coba, Gabriel and Bernardus H. J. DE JONG
  • 2018
  • Árboles de Calakmul. ECCOSUR, Chiapas. 245 pages.

    It is amazing that there is no such book for Parque Nacional Tikal, nor El Mirador. Even though it includes only half the estimated number of “trees,” it has more tree species than Schulze and Whitacre for Tikal (they estimated about 200 but list only about 156 (their lists of species and list by plant family are not identical).

    The entire book is a totally free download, however you can’t copy and paste so is difficult to add to your discussion.

    http://aleph.ecosur.mx:8991/exlibris/aleph/a221/apachemedia/74R92GMRSJSEPFDEE5NJY4SJI2I8AK.pdf
  • ORDOÑEZ Salanueva, César Alejandro
  • 2016
  • Patrón diario de actividades, dieta y niveles de estrés del mono araña (Ateles geoffroyi) en un paisaje fragmentado. PhD dissertation, UNAM, Mexico.
  • PAIZ-Merino, Yves Constantino
  • 2001
  • Estudio florístico de las comunidades vegetales de la peninsula de Manabique, Izabal.
  • PARDO Villegas, Pedro Daniel, BURGOS Barrios, Claudia Leticia and Harim Wagner CRUZ de León
  • 2011
  • Plantas medicinales y Comestibles de la Reserva Natural de Usos múltiples Monterrico–RNUMM-, Taxisco, Santa RosaUSAC-DIGI, PUIRNA. 187 pages.

    This is a helpful research report.
  • PARKER, Tracey
  • 2008
  • Trees of Guatemala. The Tree Press. 1033 pages.
  • PARKS WATCH
  • 2003
  • Park Profile– Guatemala Chocón Machacas Protected Biotope. ParksWatch.
  • PEÑA-Chocarro, María and Sandra KNAPP
  • 2011
  • Árboles del mundo maya. Natural History Museum Publications. 263 pages.

    Helpful book; contributing authors are experienced botanists. They cover 220 species of trees, more than virtually all other “Books on Trees of the Maya.” Even include tasiste (which is missing from all other books on “Trees of the Maya” except for the recent book on Árboles de Calakmul.

    But if all this effort is going into a book, would help if there were more photos, larger photos, and not so much blank space at the bottom of each page. Plus would help if the text could include personal first hand experience with these trees out in the Mundo Maya. But even as is, it is a helpful book.

    If you are doing field work you need this, plus Árboles de Calakmul, plus Árboles tropicales de México. Parker’s book you need back in your office, since out in the field it’s not much help due to lack of photographs. Back in your office the books by Regina Aguirre de Riojas are also helpful.
  • PENNINGTON, Terence D. and José SARUKHAN
  • 2005
  • Árboles tropicales de México. Manual para la identificación de las principals especies. 3rd edition. UNAM, Fondo de Cultura Economica. 523 pages.

    This book is a serious botanical monograph. 1968 was the first edition (I still have this), 1998 was second edition. The 3rd edition is a “must have” book. Each tree has an excellent line drawing of leaves and often flowers and fruits (though to understand flowers you need them in photographs, in full color). Each tree has a map showing where found in Mexico (such maps are lacking in most books on Trees of Guatemala or plants of Belize). But trying to fit a description of a tree on one single page means that a lot of potential information on flowering time is not present. And, this is definitely not a book on ethnobotany: for that you need Suzanne Cook.
  • PÉREZ, S., HERNAN, P., KIHN, A., MORALES, P., CASTILLO, J., RAMÍREZ, F., CANO, E., ORDÓÑEZ, J., FLORES, M., HIGUEROS, A., ACEVEDO, M., VÁSQUEZ, C., BURGOS, C., ENQUÍQUEZ, H. and H. PIÉROLA
  • 2011
  • Informe final “Caracterización Ecológica de los Biotopos Chocon Machacas, Izabal y Cerro Cahui, Petén” USAC, Guatemala.
  • SCHULZE, Mark D. and David F. WHITACRE
  • 1999
  • A Classification and Ordination of the Tree Community of Tikal National Park, Peten, Guatemala. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 169-297.

    Even though 20 years ago, it’s the best list of trees of Tikal that I have found. There is a web site with plants of Tikal but they are not separated into trees, vines, shrubs, etc., so harder to use. The new monograph on Arboles de Calakmul is better than anything available so far on Tikal (and the nice albeit short book by Felipe Lanza of decades back on trees of Tikal is neither available as a scanned PDF nor as a book on Amazon or ebay).

    Available on the Internet.
  • STANDLEY, Paul C.
  • 1931
  • The Mexican and Central American species of Pterocarpus. Trop. Woods 28: 10-14. 1931.
  • STANDLEY, Paul C. and Samuel J. RECORD
  • 1936
  • The Forests and Flora of British Honduras. Field Museum of Natural History. Publication 350, Botanical Series Volume XII. 432 pages plus photographs.
  • STANDLEY, Paul C. and Julian A. STEYERMARK
  • 1946
  • Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Botany, Volume 24, Part V. Chicago Natural History Museum.
  • TROLLIET, Franck
  • 2010
  • Ecology of the Belizean black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra): a comparison between two populations living in a riparian forest and on coastal limestone hills. MS thesis, Unité de Biologie du Comportement: Ethologie et Psychologie animale - Université de Liège. 51 pages.
  • VÁSQUEZ-Torres, Mario, ARMENTA-Montero, Samaria, CAMPOS-Jiménez, Jaqueline and César I. CARVAJAL-Hernández
  • 2010
  • Árboles de la región de Los Tuxtlas, Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz. 424 pages.
  • VOZZO, J. A. (editor)
  • 2002
  • Tropical tree seed manual. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture, Handbook 721. 899 pages.
  • VOZZO, J. A. (editor)
  • 2010
  • Manual de Semillas de Arboles Tropicales. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture.
  • WILSON, Michael
  • 1972
  • A Highland Maya People and their Habitat: The Natural History, Demography and Economy K´ekchi´ PhD dissertation. 475 pages.

    His field work was near San Pedro Carcha, which is now a suburb of Coban, Alta Verapaz. The climate is moist due to moist clouds during many times of the year.

    Downloable version available on the Internet.

 

Helpful websites on Pterocarpus officinalis

http://floraelverde.catec.upr.edu/especie_info.php?id=483
General information

https://inpn.mnhn.fr/espece/cd_nom/630517
Nice photos

https://sura.ots.ac.cr/local/florula4/find_sp.php?key_species_code=LS001143&key_family=Fabaceae&key_genus=Pterocarpus&specie_name=officinalis#
Complete information and photos

http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Pterocarpus+officinalis
General information and uses

http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=Pterocarpus+officinalis
Additional references

 

 

First posted June, 2021
Bibliography prepared by Vivian Hurtado, FLAAR Mesoamerica

 

Parque Nacional Yaxha, Nakum and Naranjo

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Smartphone Camera Reviews

Fungi and Lichens

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Plants and trees used to produce incense

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