When time and funding permit, each flower (each plant species) will have its own page, and its own PDF, and eventually its own PPT so that professors and students have plenty of material on Guatemala (and Honduras, etc) to study.

Heliconia adflexa, Coban, Guatemala, Hotel Monja Blanca, FLAAR, by Nicholas Hellmuth

This space is for flowers
we have recently found and photographed.

Reports by FLAAR Mesoamerica
on Flora & Fauna of Parque Nacional Yaxha Nakum Naranjo
Peten, Guatemala, Central America

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Bibliography on Potential edible root crop for the Classic Maya in past centuries: Xanthosoma robustum, Marac (in Q’eqchi’ Mayan in Alta Verapaz)

PDF, Articles, Books on Xanthosoma robustum

  • BREEDLOVE Dennis E. and Robert M. LAUGHLIN
  • 1993
  • The Flowering of Man a Tzotzil Botany of Zinacantan, Volume I. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, No 35. Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Available Online:

    Information in pages 207, 251, 428
  • CHÁVEZ-Quiñónez, Evelia, ROLDÁN-Toriz, José, SOTELO-Ortiz, Blanca Estela, BALLINAS-Díaz, Julio and Judith Erika LÓPEZ ZÚÑIGA
  • 2009
  • Plantas comestibles no convencionales en Chiapas, México. RESPYN. Vol, 10, No. 2

    Free Online:
  • 2000
  • Scarab beetles, elephant ear (Xanthosoma robustum), and their associates. In: Natkarni, N. M., Wheelwright, N. T, Editors. Monteverde. Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest. pp. 268–271. Oxford University Press.
  • HEINDORF, Claudia
  • 2011
  • Ethnobotany and Natural Products: The Search for New Molecules, New Treatments of Old Diseases or a Better Understanding of Indigenous Cultures? Current Topics in Medicinal Chemestry. Vol 3, pages 29-42

    Free Online:
  • HOSLER, Dorothy, BURKETT, Sandra L and Michael J. TARKANIAN
  • 1999
  • Prehistoric Polymers: Rubber Processing in Ancient Mesoamerica. New Series, Vol. 284, No. 5422, pages. 1988-1991
  • LEVY Tacher, SAMUEL I., AGUIRRE-Rivera, J. Rogelio, GARCÍA-Pérez, José D, and María Magdalena MARTÍNEZ-Romero
  • 2006
  • Aspectos florísticos de Lacanhá Chansayab, Selva Lacandona,Chiapas Acta Botánica Mexicana, No 77, pages 69-98 Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Pátzcuaro, México.
  • STANDLEY, Paul C. and Julian A. STEYERMARK
  • 1958
  • Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana: Botany, Volume 24, Part I. Chicago Natural History Museum.


Helpful web sites for any and all plants

There are several web sites that are helpful even though not of a university or botanical garden or government institute.

However most popular web sites are copy-and-paste (a polite way of saying that their authors do not work out in the field, or even in a botanical garden). Many of these web sites are click bait (they make money when you buy stuff in the advertisements that are all along the sides and in wide banners also. So we prefer to focus on web sites that have reliable information.

Neotropical Flora data base. To start your search, click on this page:

CONABIO. The video they show on their home page shows a wide range of flowers pollinators, a snake and animals. The videos of the insects are great.

Kew gardens in the UK is one of several botanical gardens that I have visited (also New York Botanical Gardens and Missouri Botanical Gardens (MOBOT), in St Louis. Also the botanical garden in Singapore and El Jardín Botánico, the open forest botanical garden in Guatemala City).

This is the most reliable botanical web site to find synonyms. In the recent year, only one plant had more synonyms on another botanical web site.

Suggested webpages with photos and information on Xanthosoma robustum

Photos and map distribution


Photos, map distribution and information



First posted, February 2020
Bibliography prepared by Vivian Hurtado, FLAAR Mesoamerica.


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