When time and funding permit, each flower (each plant species) will have its own page, and its own PDF, and eventually its own PPT so that professors and students have plenty of material on Guatemala (and Honduras, etc) to study.

Heliconia, Guatemala, FLAAR Mayan ethnobotanical garden, Jun 1, 2017, by Nicholas Hellmuth

This space is for flowers
we have recently found and photographed.


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A to Z index of utilitarian plants and sacred flowers of web site www.maya-ethnobotany.org

If you find a page on www.maya-ethnobotany.org which is not in this index (or which ought to be indexed also under an additional concept), please let us know, e-mail This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .




Achiote, Bixa orellana

Anacardium occidentale L. Cashew (marañon)

Aromatherapy, Magnolia, but species native to Guatemala and Mexico and Honduras

Auritum, hoja santa

Avocado Hass



Bernoullia flammea, mapola, or amapola

Bejuco, Aristolochia

Bixa orellana

Blepharidium guatemalense, irayol blanco, family Rubiaceae

Bourreria huanita

Bombacaceae, Bernoullia flammea, now subfamily Bombacoideae

Bursera simaruba, Palo jiote

Byrsonima crassifolia, Nance tree


cacao, chocolate, pataxte, Theobroma bicolor

Cacao, cocoa, chocolate, chile as flavoring among the Maya (and potentially among the Aztec).

Cacao, cocoa, chocolate, consulting, especially on Theobroma bicolor, but also Theobroma angustifolium

Cacao, cocoa, chocolate flavorings, vanilla

Cacao flavoring, magnolia

Cacao silvestre, cacao de montaña, cacao de mono, and potentially cacao de mico; Theobroma angustifolium

Calliandra, general introduction

 Cana indica, leaves as wrap for tamale


Canastilla, Aristolochia

Cashew (marañon)

Cassia grandis, bucut

Chile Chocolate (Capsicum annuum var accuminatum)

Chilli, or chile, as flavoring for chocolate.

Chayote, Güisquil

Chocolate, see cacao (which is the correct botanical name; cocoa is a misinterpretation
(misunderstanding) from several centuries ago.

Cassia grandis, bucut

Coclospermum vitifolium, Tecomasuche

Consulting services available to cacao, cocoa, chocolate, candy companies, worldwide, from an Olmec, Teotihuacan, Maya, and Aztec perspective.

Crescentia alata, Crescentia cujete

Cymbopetalum penduliflorum


Dahlia plants and flowers

Digital photography reviews, 400mm

Dutchman's Pipe, Aristolochia elegans



Erythrina berteroana, Palo de Pito


Flor de Calico, Aristolochia elegans

Flor de Muerto

Flor de Sangre, Asclepias curassavica

Food of the Maya, Bernoullia flammea, edible seeds



Garden for research on plants of Guatemala

Giant granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis

Guaco, Aristolochia


Guazuma ulmifolia

Guava, Guayaba, Psidium guajava, a medicinal plant



  Irayol blanco, Blepharidium guatemalense, family Rubiaceae






Lauraceae gender, Avocado

Logwood, Haematoxylum campechianum, palo de tinto, palo de Campeche

Logwood, palo de Campeche flower, palo de tinto, Haematoxylum campechianum




Magnolia, medicinal and flavoring for cacao

Magnolia quetzal, using Nikon

Mapola, or amapola, Bernoullia flammea

Maracuya, Passiflora quadrangularis

Marañón, Cashew

Marigold Flower, Flor de Muerto

Medicinal plant, Guava, Guayaba, Psidium guajava

Medicinal plants

Medicinal plants, List

Medicinal plants, Magnolia

Medicinal, magnolia flavoring for cacao is also medicinal

Milkweed, Asclepias curassavical


Nance tree


Orchids, vanilla orchid



Pacaya palm, Chamaedorea tepejilote

Pachira aquatica

Palo de Pito Flowers

Palo de Campeche, logwood, Haematoxylum campechianum, palo de tinto

Palo de Campeche flower, palo de tinto, Haematoxylum campechianum

Palo jiote

Passiflora quadrangularis , giant granadilla, maracuya, Badea

Pataxte, Theobroma bicolor, a species which also produces cocoa for chocolate

Introduction to Papaya

Pelican flower, Aristolochia elegans

Passion flowers and fruits, Passiflora

Persea gender, Avocado

Platanillo, Asclepias curassavica

Photo Exhibit, Pachira aquatica

Piper auritum, hoja santa

Piper species as potentially medicinal (or toxic needing their own medicine!)

Punica granatum, Granada






Sterculia apetala, Castaño

Sechium edule, Güisquil


Tagetes erecta, Flor de Muerto

Tagetes sp., Marigold

Tecolotillo, Aristolochia

Talauma, a variant of Magnolia

Tecomasuche flower, Coclospermum vitifolium

Theobroma angustifolium, cacao silvestre, cacao de montaña, cacao de mono, and potentially cacao de mico

Theobroma bicolor, pataxte

Tinto, palo de tinto; palo de Campeche, Haematoxylum campechianum

Tobacco-related, leaves can wrap cigarettes, Guava, Guayaba, Psidium guajava





Virola and nutmeg








Zapoton, Pachira aquatica


Demo xtra 2

Tikal Related Reports


Consulting cacao & Theobroma species

Tobacco Ingredients of Aztec & Maya

Tropical Nuts

Spices, condiments, food coloring

Underutilized edible plants

Plants and trees used to produce incense

Camera Reviews for Photographing Flowers and Plants

Trees with conical Spines

Flowers native to Guatemala visible now around the world

Ethnobotany site page Donations acknowled Botton DONATE NOW


Fruits (typical misnomer mishmash of Spanish language)

Fruits (vines or cacti)

Flavoring, herbs, and spices

Flowers, sacred

Plants which are sacred

Plants or trees that are used to produce incense

Most common introduced plants (not native)

Pachira aquatica, zapoton, zapote bobo, crucial sacred flower for Maya archaeologists and iconographers
Read article on Achiote, Bixa orellana, annatto, natural plant dye for coloring (and flavoring) food (especially cacao drink) in Guatemala and Mexico.
Read article on Cuajilote or Caiba: Parmentiera aculeata, a forgotten fruit.
Read article on Split leaf philodendron, Monstera deliciosa.


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