When time and funding permit, each flower (each plant species) will have its own page, and its own PDF, and eventually its own PPT so that professors and students have plenty of material on Guatemala (and Honduras, etc) to study.

Heliconia, Guatemala, FLAAR Mayan ethnobotanical garden, Jun 1, 2017, by Nicholas Hellmuth

Florifundia
This space is for flowers
we have recently found and photographed.

Europe

English Bulgarian Croatian Czech Danish Dutch French German Greek Italian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Turkish Ukrainian

Asia

Armenian Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Filipino Greek Hebrew Hindi Japanese

Africa

Afrikaans Arabic Swahili
Follow me in twitter. FLAAR reports Add a Nicholas Hellmunth to yor network. FLAAR reports.
| Share
News Feeds:
Be careful of hallucinogenic mild-altering plants as they tend to be poisonous; the case of angel’s trumpet, Brugmansia arborea.

Brugmansia arborea is a popular garden flower throughout the tropics

We found this plant in our garden. We also see yellow Brugmansia in nurseries. These are popular garden flowers throughout tropical America. They require no particular care and grow like a contented weed. Then occasionally they begin to flower and you have gorgeous flowers for many days (my shrub is not that large).

When I returned from lecturing in South Africa and installing my photo exhibit in St Louis at MOBOT on sacred Maya flowers, I found the plant flowering. There were about eight dead flowers already on the ground; three flowers in full bloom, and about nine buds.

Brugmansia plant flowering at FLAAR garden. Photo by Sofia Monzon using a Canon EOS Rebel T2i

This is the height of the autumn rainy season, at 1500 meters elevation, Guatemala City.

One part of the tree actually had fallen to the ground and was almost like a ground vine. Part in the middle had taken root. But it was still producing flowers at the end.

The rest of the shrub was upright.

We noticed no fragrance whatsoever with the flowers of Brugmansia arborea

Unless you stick your nose deep into the flower, during the day there was no odor. And at night I did not notice much either. In distinction, huele de noche and flor de nardo have a delectable fragrance. These other two flowers are noticeable to your nose many meters away.

But, when I went to the plant about 9 pm, and cut one of the flowers to bring it into the photo studio, I noticed it did indeed offer a remarkable fragrance, like sweet enticing flavored milk. Not the overpowering fragrance of huele de noche or flor de nardo. And not the amazing fragrance of the Brugmansia tree in the nursery in Antigua Guatemala (which has over 70 flowers at a time). But the pink flower did have a potentially alluring odor.

Since the plant is toxic, hallucinogenic and probably even more nasty features I did not want to inhale any more. But I can understand that if you were the High Priest, or Shaman or King, you might want to stick your face into the flower for several minutes.

Brugmansia flower detail

Imagine if you had a dozen other flowers available with additional chemicals.

Fortunately I prefer to photograph the natural beauty of these flowers. I find life quite educational, learning about plants and animals, so I do not feel the need to destroy my brain and damage the remains of my body just to get a momentary high.

Flowers pop open in the early evening

Two of the blossoms opened before 7:30 pm. Whether they open only at night is hard to tell since our shrub is not that large.

We photographed theBrugmansia flower outside, and then in our studio

About 20 minutes after the half-opened bud was in our studio, it suddenly popped fully open. This amazed the photographer, Sofia Monzon.

The different stages of the Florifundia as it opened during the photo shoot in our studio

The different stages of the Florifundia as it opened during the photo shoot in our studio. Images by Sofia Monzon using a Canon EOS Rebel T2i

We use fluorescent lighting courtesy of F.J. Westcott, so there is no heat to melt the poor flowers. We put them in lots of water. So a combination of the water and the light probably caused the flower to open.

Later I brought in two buds, and neither of them opened even after being under light for three hours. I guess they were not yet open enough to be triggered by the fluorescent lighting.

These two angel trumpet buds did not open under the light. Burgmansia arborea, florifundia image taken in FLAAR Studio by Nicholas Hellmuth using a Phase One A/S P25+

These two angel trumpet buds did not open under the light. Burgmansia arborea, florifundia image taken in FLAAR Studio by Nicholas Hellmuth using a Phase One A/S P25+

Buds of Brugmansia arborea are yellow; flower is initially white; when mature flower is pink

At first I thought the tree was producing several different colors of flowers. But later we figured out that

  • The buds are yellow
  • The flower opens and is white
  • The flower is pink the next day and dies as a pink flower
Angel trumpet flowers in different stages. FLAAR Studio, photo by Nicholas Hellmuth using a Phase One A/S P25+

Angel trumpet flowers in different stages. FLAAR Studio, photo by Nicholas Hellmuth using a Phase One A/S P25+

Brugmansia arborea is native to South America so Mesoamerican usage needs to be confirmed

Brugmansia arborea is considered to be from South America, so whether it was grown in Mesoamerica before arrival of the Spaniards needs to be confirmed. I would estimate that a flower as pretty as this for a garden, and a plant with as many hallucinogenic chemicals would have been desired two thousand years ago. But before we all start talking about the Maya using this plant, we need proof that it is pre-Columbian in Mesoamerica.

Most identifications of flowers in Maya art are in error

If you see anyone calling a flower in Maya art a Datura, you have to ask whether they are familiar with the newest botanical awareness of the Solanaceae, nightshade, family. Datura have flowers pointing up; Brugmansia have flowers pointing down. Both kinds of plant deserve further study to see which was available to the pre-Columbian Maya of Guatemala and nearby areas.

Brugmansia have flowers pointing down. Photo by Nicholas Hellmuth using a Phase One A/S P25+

Brugmansia have flowers pointing down. Photo by Nicholas Hellmuth using a Phase One A/S P25+

We are not studying hallucinogens. But if you wish to learn which plants to avoid, the monographs by Christian Ratsch are the best. You can also look at the book by Michael Wink and Ben-Erik Van Wyk.

Our interest is to see which plants were used by the Maya; which not. And which flowers appear in Maya art. After several years of research we have noticed that most and often all identifications of flowers in Maya art are inaccurate. The exception are identifications by botanist Charles Zidar, Missouri Botanical Garden. Ratsch is pretty accurate also.

Brugmansia arborea is rarely correctly identified as such.

Brugmansia arborea is rarely correctly identified as such.. Photo by Nicholas Hellmuth using a Phase One A/S P25+

Probably 60% to often 90% of the identifications of flowers in books by most writers on the Lacandon Maya of Lowland Chiapas are in error (they all focus too much on Plumeria). The sad fact is that many of the ethnographers who have lived and worked with the Lacandon have seemingly never gone out and actually studied each and every flower. Their names for most of the Lacandon flowers-of-deity-generation are incorrect. There are potentially three species involved; so far more than only Plumeria. We have high resolution photographs of all three flowers.

The Brugmansia arborea is not mentioned in most studies of the Lacandon and rarely featured in most research on the Maya use of flowers (the flowers which are important tend to be given other names, which we have indicated are mostly incorrect). I mention the error on the Lacandon plant names because there is a comparable mish mash of illogical naming between Datura and Brugmansia.

Most parts of this Brugmansia arborea plant are toxic

Florifundia is a toxic plant. Brugmansia arborea flower, image by Sofia Monzon using a Canon EOS Rebel T2i

Florifundia is a toxic plant. Brugmansia arborea flower, image by Sofia Monzon using a Canon EOS Rebel T2i

Do not touch the plant without gloves; wash your hands afterwards, and resist any silly temptation to eat any part of the plant. This plant, and its relatives, are toxic.

You see more Brugmansia in Guatemala than Datura

Most of the trumpet-shaped flowers you see in gardens as you drive through villages throughout Guatemala have flowers that are hanging down. Most of these are Brugmansia. So I do not see Datura as often.

 

First posted September 11, 2012. More text added September 12, 2012.

 
Demo xtra 2

Tikal Related Reports

Bernoullia_flammea_mapola_&_temple_III_Tikal_FLAAR_Report_cover
Bernoullia_flammea_mapola_&_temple_V_Tikal_FLAAR_Report
Bernoullia_flammea_mapola_cante_great_plaza_ballcourt_&_temple_I_Tikal_FLAAR_Report
Bernoullia_flammea_mapola_cante_Natural_Beauty_at_Tikal_Central_Acropolis_FLAAR_Report
Cutting-Patterns-made-by-leaf-cutting-ants-Zompopos-at-parque-nacional-tikal-FLAAR-Reports
Flowers-of-Maya-art-Pachira-aquatica_Parque-Nacional_Tikal_Nicholas-Hellmuth
Guazuma_ulmifolia_at_Tikal_Report_Nicholas_Hellmuth
Meleagris_ocellata_occelated_turkey_Tikal_FLAAR_Report

Consulting cacao & Theobroma species

Tobacco Ingredients of Aztec & Maya

Tropical Nuts

Spices, condiments, food coloring

Underutilized edible plants

Plants and trees used to produce incense

Camera Reviews for Photographing Flowers and Plants

Trees with conical Spines

Flowers native to Guatemala visible now around the world

Ethnobotany site page Donations acknowled Botton DONATE NOW

SUBJECTS TO BE COVERED DURING NEXT 6 MONTHS

Fruits (typical misnomer mishmash of Spanish language)

Fruits (vines or cacti)

Flavoring, herbs, and spices

Flowers, sacred

Plants which are sacred

Plants or trees that are used to produce incense

Most common introduced plants (not native)

We Thank Gitzo, 90% of the photographs of plants, flowers and trees in Guatemala are photographed using a Gitzo tripod, available from Manfrotto Distribution.
Read article on Cuajilote or Caiba: Parmentiera aculeata, a forgotten fruit.
Read article on Split leaf philodendron, Monstera deliciosa.
Read article on Gonolobus, an edible vine from Asclepiadaceae Family.
Pachira aquatica, zapoton, zapote bobo, crucial sacred flower for Maya archaeologists and iconographers
Flor de Mayo,Plumeria rubia, plumeria alba, plumeria obtusa. Edible flower used to flavor cacao
Guanaba, annona squamosa, Chincuya, Annona purpurea, Sugar apple, Chirimoya

 

linkedin logo
barra separadora
twitter-logo
barra separadora
twitter-logo
Join the over one thousand
wide-format inkjet, digital imaging,
signage, and related individuals worldwide
who are linked to FLAAR Reports
via Dr Nicholas Hellmuth.
We have two sets of Tweets:
digital imaging tweets
(printers, inks, media, etc)
Mayan studies
tweets (archaeology,
ethnobotany, ethnozoology
of Guatemala)
Copyright © 2017. maya-ethnobotany.org. Powered by FLAAR
elektronik sigara orjinal elektronik sigara red kiwi elektronik sigara